Degenerative Disc Disease 101– References

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1) Spivak J, "Degenerative Spinal Stenosis" J Bone Joint Surg - 1998; 80:1053-1066

2) Gruber, H.E. and Hanley, E.N., Jr. (1998) Analysis of aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. Comparison of surgical specimens with normal controls. Spine 1998; 23(7):751-7

3) Sward L, et al. "Disc Degeneration and associated abnormalities of the spine in elite gymnasts; a MRI study." Spine, 1991 ;16:437 -43

4) Salminen JJ, et al. "Recurrent low back pain and early disc degeneration in the young." Spine 1999; 24: 1316-21

5) Horner HA, Urban JPG, "Effects of Nutrient Supply on the Viability of Cells from the Nucleus Pulposus of the Intervertebral Disc: 2001 Volvo Award in Basic Science." Spine 2001; 26(23):2543-2549

6)   Boos N, et al. " Classification of Age-Related Changes in Lumbar Intervertebral Discs 2002 Volvo Award in Basic Science" Spine 2002; Volume 27, Number 23, pp 2631-2644

7) Vernon-Roberts B, "Age-related and degenerative pathology of intervertebral discs and apophyseal joints. In: Jayson MIV, ed The lumbar Spine and back Pain. Edinburgh , Scotland : Churchill Livingstone, 1992: 17-41

8) Vernon-Roberts B, "Disc pathology and disc states." In : Gosh P, ed. The Biology of the intervertebral disc. Boca Raton , FL : CRC Press, 1988: 73-119

9) Hall AC, Urban, JPG, "The effects of hydrostatic pressure on matrix synthesis in articular cartilage."   J Orthop Res 1991 ;9:1 -10

10) Parkkinen JJ, et al. "Altered Golgi apparatus in hydrostatically loaded articular cartilage chondrocytes." Ann Rheum Dis   1993 ;52:192-8

11) Handa T, et al. "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on Matrix Synthesis and MMP production in the human lumbar intervertebral disc." Spine 1997 ;22:1085 -1091

12) Adams MA, et al. "Stress distributions inside intervertebral discs:   The effects of age and degeneration.   J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1996 ;78:965 -72

13) Dunlop RB, Adams MA, et al. "Disc space narrowing and the lumbar fact joints. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1984 ;66:706 -10

14) Buckwalter JA, "Aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc." Spine 1995; 20:1307-1314

15) Nerlich AG, Boos N, et al. "Volvo Award Winner 1997: Immunohistologic Markers for Age-Related Changes of Human Lumbar Intervertebral Discs." Spine 1997; 22(24):2781-2795

16) Adams MA, Freeman BJC, et al. "mechanical initiation of intervertebral disc degeneration." Spine 2000; 25(13):1625-1636

17) Adams MA, et al. "the stages of disc degeneration as revealed by discograms." J Bone Joint Surg Br 1986:68:36-41

18) Adams MA, Hutton WC, "The effect of posture on the fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs." Spine 1983; 8:665-71

19) Adams MA, et al. "Abnormal stress concentrations in lumbar intervertebral discs following damage to the vertebral body: A cause of disc failure." Eur Spine J 1993 1:214-21

20) Ishihara H, Urban JPG, et al. "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on matrix synthesis in different regions of the intervertebral disk." J Appl Physiol 1996; 80: 839-46

21) Moon SH, et al. (2000) "Human Intervertebral disc cells are genetically modifiable by adenovirus mediated gene transfer:" Spine - 2000; 25:2573-9

24) Nishida K, et al. (1999) "Modulation of the biologic activity of the rabbit IVD by gene therapy" Spine -1999; 24:2419-25

23) Brinckmann P, Grootenboer H. "Change of disc height, radial disc bulge, and intradiscal pressure from discectomy: An in vitro investigation on human lumbar discs." Spine 1991; 16:641-6

25) Nishida K, et al. (1998) "Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to nucleus pulposus cells:" Spine 1998; 23:2437-42

26) Buckwalter JA. "Spine update: Aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc." Spine 1995; 20:1307-14

27) Modic MT et al. "Imaging of degenerative disc disease." Radiology 1988 ;177 -86

28) Battie MC, et al. " 1991 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Smoking and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration: an MRI study of identical twins." Spine 1991 ;16:1015 -21

30) Brinckmann P, et al. "Fatigue fracture of human lumbar vertebrae." Con Biomech 1988 ;3 ( Suppl 1)

31) Brinckmann P, et al. "Prediction of the compressive strength of human lumbar vertebrae." Clin Biomech 1989; 4( Suppl 2)

32) Brinckmann P, et al. "A laboratory model of lumbar disc protrusion." Spine 1994; 19:228-35

33) Perry O. "Fracture of the Vertebral End-plate: A biomechanical investigation." Acta Orthop Scand 1957; ( Suppl 25)

34) Pfirrmann CWA, Resnick D, " Schmorl Nodes of the thoracic and lumbar spine: Radiographic-pathologic study of prevalence, characterization, and correlation with degenerative changes of 1650 spinal levels in 100 cadavers." Radiology 2001; 219:368-374

36) Gunzburg R, Moore R, et al. "A cadaveric study comparing discography, MRI, histology, and mechanical behaviour of the human lumbar disc.   Spine 1992; 17:417-23

37) Tanaka M, et al. "A pathologic study of discs in the elderly." Spine 1993; 18:1456-62

47) Wehling P, et al. (1997) "Transfer of genes to chondrocytic cells of the lumbar spine:" Spine 1997; 22:1092-7

59) Bogduk N, Adams M, et al. "The Biomechanics of back pain." Churchill Livingstone - 2002; London : 1 st edition: 62-71

60) Moneta GB, et al. "Reported pain during lumbar discography as a function of anular ruptures and disc degeneration." Spine 1994; 19:1968-74

62) Banks RA, et al. "Ageing and zonal variation in post-translational modification of collagen in normal human articular cartilage." Biochem J 1998; 330:345-51

64) Nachemson A.   "In vivo discomety in lumbar discs with irregular nucleograms ." Acta Orthop Scand 1965; 36:418-34

66) Nerlich AG, Boos N, "Immunohistologic markers for age-related changes of human lumbar intervertebral discs." Spine 1997; 22:2781-95

81) Vernon-Roberts B. "Disc pathology and disease states." In: Ghosh P, ed . The Biology of the Intervertebral Disc. Vol II. Boca Raton , Fl: CRC Press, 1988:73-119

100) Jensen MC, et al. "MRI imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain." N Engl J Med - 1994; 331:369-373

101) Boden SD et al. "Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects." J Bone Joint Surg - 1990; 72A:403-407

102) Weishaupt D et al. "MRI of the lumbar spine: Prevalence of intervertebral disc extrusion and sequestration, nerve root compression and plate abnormalities, and osteoarthritis of the fact joints in Asymptomatic Volunteers." Radiology - 1998; 209:661-666

103) Boos N, et al. "1995 Volvo Award in clinical science: The diagnostic accuracy of MRI, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations." Spine - 1995; 20:2613-2625

104) Powell MC, et al. "Prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration observed by magnetic resonance in symptomless women." Lancer - 1986; 2:1366-7

105) Boos N, et al. "Natural history of individuals with asymptomatic disc abnormalities in MRI:   Predictors of   low back pain-related medical consultation and work incapacity." Spine 2000 ;   25:1484

106) Borenstein G, et al. "The value of magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine to predict low-back pain in asymptomatic individuals: A 7-year follow-up study. J Bone Joint [am] 2001; 83:320-34

151) Buckwalter JA, "Fine structural studies of the human intervertebral disc." In: White AA, et al. Idiopathic Low Back pain. St. Louis : CV Mosby , 1982:108-43.

152) Buckwalter JA, et al. Soft tissue aging and musculoskeletal function. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1993; 75:1533-48

200) Urban JPG, Roberts S, (2003) "Degeneration of the intervertebral disc" Arthritis Res Ther - 2003; 5:120-130

201) Luoma K, et al. "Low back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration". Spine - 2000; 25(4):487-492

203) Aprill C, Bogduk N, "High-intensity zone: A diagnostic sign of painful lumbar disc on MRI." Br J Radiol 1992 ;65:361 -9

202) Boden SD et al. "Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects." J Bone Joint Surg - 1990; 72A:403-407

206) Erkintalo MO et al. "Development of degenerative changes in the lumbar intervertebral disc: Results of a prospective MR imaging study in adolescents with and without low-back pain."   Radiology - 1995; 196:529-33

209) Horton WC, Daftari TK, "Which disc as visualized by MRI is actually a source of pain? A correlation between MRI and discography." Spine 1992 ;17:S164 -71

215) Modic MT , et al, "Magnetic resonance imaging of intervertebral disk disease: Clinical and pulse sequence considerations." Radiology 1984; 152:103-11

216) Moneta GB, et al, "Reported pain during lumbar discography as a function of anular ruptures and disc degeneration: A re-analysis of 833 discograms." Spine 1994 ;19:1968 -74

219) Paajanen H, et al. "Magnetic resonance study of disc degeneration in young low-back pain patients. Spine 1989; 14:982-5

226) Tertti M, et al. "Disc degeneration in magnetic resonance imaging: A comparative biochemical, histologic and radiologic study in cadaver spines." Spine 1991; 16:629-34

227) Tertti M, et al. "Low-back pain and disc degeneration in children: A case - control MRI study." Radiology 1991; 180:503-7

231) Vanharanta H, et al. "The relationship of pain provocation to lumbar disc deterioration as seen by CT/discography." Spine 1987 ;12:295 -298

241) Urban JPG, McMullin JF, "Swelling pressure of the lumbar intervertebral discs: influence of age, spinal level, composition and degeneration." Spine 1988, 13:179-187

250) Maniadakis N, Gray A, "The economic burden of back pain in the UK ." Pain 2000; 84:95-103

251 ) ) Luoma k, (2000) "Low back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration" Spine - 2000; 25(4):487-492

252) Nachemson AL, Egon J, "Neck and back pain: The scientific evidence of causes, diagnosis, and treatment." Lippincott Williams & Wilkins - 2000; Philadelphia , PA

253) SCB ( statistiska centralbyran [Statistics Sweden]). Undersokningar av levnadsforhallanden , ULF [National household surveys]. Stockholm :SCB , 1996

300) Jensen MC, et al. "MRI imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain." N Engl J Med - 1994; 331:369-373

301) Boden SD et al. "Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects." J Bone Joint Surg - 1990; 72A:403-407

302) Weishaupt D et al. "MRI of the lumbar spine: Prevalence of intervertebral disc extrusion and sequestration, nerve root compression and plate abnormalities, and osteoarthritis of the fact joints in Asymptomatic Volunteers." Radiology - 1998; 209:661-666

303) Boos N, et al. "1995 Volvo Award in clinical science: The diagnostic accuracy of MRI, work perception, and psychosocial factors in identifying symptomatic disc herniations." Spine - 1995; 20:2613-2625

304) Powell MC, et al. "Prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration observed by magnetic resonance in symptomless women." Lancer - 1986; 2:1366-7

305) Boos N, et al. "Natural history of individuals with asymptomatic disc abnormalities in MRI:   Predictors of low back pain-related medical consultation and work incapacity." Spine 2000 ;   25:1484

306) Borenstein G, et al. "The value of magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine to predict low-back pain in asymptomatic individuals: A 7-year follow-up study. J Bone Joint [am] 2001; 83:320-34

321) Trout JJ, Buckwalter JA, Moore KC, "Ultrastructure of the human intervertebral disc: II. Cells of the nucleus pulposus." Anat Rec 1982; 204:307-314

324) Johnstone B, Bayliss MT , "The large proteoglycans of the human intervertebral disc: Changes in their biosynthesis and structure with age, topography, and pathology. Spine 1995; 20:674-684

325) Urban JP, et al. "Swelling pressures of proteoglycans at the concentration found in cartilaginous tissues." Biorheology 1979; 16:447-464

333) Lyons G, et al. "Biochemical changes in intervertebral disc degeneration." Biochim Biophys Acta 1981; 673:443-453

365) Nachemson A, et al. "In vitro diffusion of dye through the end-plates and annulus fibrosus of human lumbar intervertebral discs." Acta Orthop Scand 1970; 41:589-607

395) Postacchini F, et al. "Familial predisposition to discogenic low-back pain. An epidemiologic and immunogenetic study." Spine. 1988 Dec;13(12):1403-6.

396) Kellgren JH, et al. "Genetic factors in generalized osteoarthritis." Ann Rheum Dis , 1963 ;22:237 -55

397) Heikkila JK, et al. "Genetic and environmental factors in sciatica.   Evidence from a nationwide panel of 9365 adult twin pairs." Ann Med 1989; 21:393-398

398) Matsui H, Kanamori M, et al. " Familial predisposition for lumbar degenerative disc disease.   A case-control study." Spine 1998; 23:1029-1034

399) Varlotta GP, et al. "Familial predisposition for herniation of a lumbar disc in patients who are less than twenty-one years old." J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991; 73:124-128

400) Heikkila JK, et al. "Genetic and environmental factors in sciatica.   Evidence from a nationwide panel of 9365 adult twin pairs." Ann Med 1989, 21:393-398

401) Matsui H, et al. "Familial predisposition for lumbar degenerative disc disease. A case-control study." Spine - 1998; 23:1029-1034

402) Variotta GP, et al. "Familial predisposition for herniation of a lumbar disc in patients who are less than twenty-one years old. J Bone Joint Surg AM 1991; 73:124-128

403) Battie MC, et al. "1995 Volvo Award: Determinants of lumbar disc degeneration. A study relating lifetime exposures and MRI findings in identical twins." Spine 1995; 20:2601-2612

404) Sambrook PN, et al. "Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a MRI study in twins." Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42:366-372

405) Battie MC, et al. "Similarities in degenerative findings on MRI of the lumbar spines of identical twins." J Bone Joint Surg AM 1995; 77:1662-1670

406) Ala- Kokko L, "Genetic risk factors for lumbar disc disease." Ann Med 2002; 34:42-47

407) Annunen S, et al. "An allele of COL9A2 associated with intervertebral disc disease." Science - 1999; 285:409-12

408) Paassilta P, et al. "Identification of a novel common genetic risk factor for lumbar disc disease." JAMA 2001 ;285:1843 -9

409) Kawaguchi Y, et al. "Association between an aggrecan gene polymorphism and lumbar disc degeneration." Spine - 1999; 24:2456-60

410) Takahashi M, et al. "The association of degeneration of the intervetebral disc with 5a/6a polymorphism in the promoter of the human matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene." J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2001; 83-B :491 -5

411) Videman T, et al. "1998 Volvo Award winner: Intragenic polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene associated with intervertebral disc degeneration." Spine - 1998; 23:2477-85

411a) Kawaguchi Y, et al. "The association of lumbar disc disease with vitamin-D receptor gene polymorphism. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002; 84-A :2022 -2028

412) Videman T, et al. "The relative roles of intragenic polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene in lumbar spine degeneration and bone density." Spine 2001, 26:E7-E12

413) Videman T, et al. "1998 Volvo Award winner: Intragenic polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene associated with intervertebral disc degeneration." Spine - 1998; 23:2477-85

413a) Videman T, et al. "Iatrogenic polymorphisms of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Associated with intervertebral disc degeneration." Presented to the International Society for the study of the lumbar spine, Brussels , June 9-13, 1998

414) Jones G, et al. "Allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor, lifestyle factors and lumbar spinal degenerative disease." Ann Rheum Dis 1998, 57:94-99

417) Sambrook PN, et al. "Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a MRI study in twins." Arthritis Rheum 1999, 42:366-372

450) Luoma k, (2000) "Low back pain in relation to lumbar disc degeneration" Spine - 2002; 25(4):487-492

451) Allan DB, Wadell G , " An historical perspective on low back pain and disability." Acta Orthop Scand Suppl - 1989; 234:1-23

452) Lotz JC et al. "1998 Volvo Award Winner in biomechanical studies: Compression-induced degeneration of the intervertebral disc: An in vivo mouse model and finite-element study.

453) Eck JC, et al. "Adjacent-segment degeneration after lumbar fusion: a review of clinical, biomechanical, and radiologic studies." Am J Orthop 1999, 28:336- 340

454) Heliovaara M: Risk factors for low back pain and sciatica." Ann Med 1989, 21:257-264

500) Horner HA, Urban JPG, "Effects of Nutrient Supply on the Viability of Cells from the Nucleus Pulposus of the Intervertebral Disc: 2001 Volvo Award in Basic Science." Spine 2001; 26(23):2543-2549

505) Battie MC, et al. "Volvo Award in clinical sciences.   Determinants of lumbar disc degeneration: a study relating lifetime exposures and magnetic resonance imaging findings in identical twins." Spine 1995; 20:2601-12

506) Bernick S, Sailliet R. "Vertebral endplate changes with aging of human vertebrae." Spine 1982; 7:97-102

517) Homs S, Nachemson A. "Nutrition of the intervertebral disc: acute effects of cigarette smoking.   An experimental animal study. Ups J Med Sci 1988; 93:91-9

524) Kauppila LI. "Prevalence of stenotic changes in arteries supplying the lumbar spine: a post mortem angiographic study on 140 subjects." Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56:591-5

526) Kauppila LI, et al. "Lumbar disc degeneration and atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta." Spine 1994; 19:923-9

537) Roberts S, et al. "The cartilage endplate and intervertebral disc in scoliosis: calcification and other sequelae." J Orthopo Res 1993; 11:747-57

538) Roberts S, Urban J, et al. "Transport properties of the human cartilage endplate in relation to its composition and calcification." Spine 1996; 21:415-20

552) Urban MR, Fairbanks JCT, et al. "Electrochemical measurement of transport into scoliotic intervertebral discs in vivo using nitrous oxide as a tracer." Spine 2001; 26:984-90

600) Modic MT , Masaryk TJ, Ross JS, et al. Imaging of degenerative disk disease. Radiology 1988; 168: 177-86

601) Pearce RH, Thompson JP, Bebault GM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging reflects the chemicalchanges of aging degeneration in the human intervertebral disk. J Rheumatol Suppl 1991; 27: 42-3.  

602) Sether LA, Yu S, Haughton VM, et al. Intervertebral disk: normal age-related changes in MR signal intensity. Radiology 1990; 177: 385-8.

604) Pfirrmann CWA, Boos N et al. " Magnetic Resonance Classification of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration" SPINE 2001 ;26:1873 -1878

900) Freemont AJ, et al " Nerve growth factor expression and innervation of the painful intervertebral disc." J Pathol 2002 ;197:286 -292

904) Freemont AJ, et al. "nerve in-growth into the diseased intervertebral disc in chronic back pain. Lancet, 1997 ;350:178 -81

905) Palmgren T, et al. " Imminohistochemical demonstration of sensory and autonomic nerve terminals in herniated lumbar disc tissue." Spine 1996; 21:1301-1306

906) Coppes MH, et al. "Innervation of 'painful' lumbar discs." Spine 1997; 22:2342-2349

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